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Citation Guide

Cite sources, create annotated bibliographies, and avoid plagiarism.

Citing online government documents

Named author

Author. Document Title. Relevant contributors, edition, and volume, issue, or report numbers (if any), Publishing Agency or Department (as listed in the document), date, URL without http://.

Motivans, Mark. Federal Hate Crime Prosecutions, 2005–19. NCJ 300952, U.S. Dept of Justice, July 2021, bjs.ojp.gov/sites/g/files/xyckuh236/files/media/document/fhcp0519.pdf

A government agency is author but not publisher

Cite like other materials with an organization author. Start with government name, listing other relevant divisions from broadest to narrowest. Document Title. Relevant contributors, edition, and volume, issue, or report numbers (if any), Publishing Agency, Department, or Company (as listed in the document), date, URL without http://.

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Indian Affairs. Native Communities and the Climate Crisis. U.S. Government Publishing Office, 10 Mar. 2021, www.congress.gov/117/cprt/SPRT44201/CPRT-117SPRT44201.pdf.

A government agency is both author and publisher

Cite like other materials for which an organization is both author and publisher. To cite a whole document, start with the Title. Relevant contributors, edition, and volume, issue, or report numbers (if any), Broadest Government Agency (as listed in the document), date, URL without http://.

A Guide to the History of Slavery in Maryland. Rev. ed., Maryland State Archives, 2020, slavery.msa. maryland.gov/pdf/md-slavery-guide-2020.pdf.

K-12 Education: Discipline Disparities for Black Students, Boys, and Students with Disabilities. GAO-18-258, U.S. Government Accountability Office, 2018, www.gao.gov/assets/gao-18-258.pdf.

Citing Web Sources

Webpage (work originally published by a website)

Author. If not author, start with "Title of Page" and/or Description. Date of work, if different than copyright date of the webpage, and if known. Relevant Contributors, edition (if any), Publisher, Website, date, URL, without http://.

"1921 Tulsa Race Massacre." Tulsa Historical Society and Museum, 2021, www.tulsahistory.org/exhibit/1921-tulsa-race-massacre.

DeFoor, Arielle. Photograph of a group of protestors atop a building with a Baltimore Uprising flag. 2 May 2015. Preserve the Baltimore Uprising Archive Project, baltimoreuprising2015.org/items/show/10564.

Gregory, Alicia. "Art, Power, and the Vote: Alexandra Bell." National Museum of Women in the Arts, 22 Oct. 2020, nmwa.org/blog/advocacy/art-power-vote-alexandra-bell. Broad Strokes Blog.

Valentine, Victoria L. "Public Editor: Alexandra Bell Highlights Bias in the News and Rewrites Racist Headlines." Culture Type, 5 Mar. 2019, www.culturetype.com/2019/03/05.

Social media post

Author (last name first) [@handle, if it’s not author’s name]. "Entire or shortened post in quotation marks, unchanged from original." Social Media Site, date, URL, without http://.

@JasonIsbell. "Psst: Aretha doesn't steal a show. The shows belong to Aretha." Twitter, 30 Dec. 2015, twitter.com/JasonIsbell/status/682262820403167237.

Posted lecture or video—YouTube, Vimeo, Instagram, etc.

Presenter or username. "Title." Database or Website, uploader (if named, if not the presenter), date, URL, without http://. Add format (like Lecture or Transcript), if helpful.

Lee, Danielle N. "How Hip-Hop Helps Us Understand Science." YouTube, uploaded by TED, 14 May 2019, youtu.be/Ln5Ts0bGguk_science. Transcript.

Singh, Lilly. "A Geography Class for Racist People." YouTube, 8 June 2017, youtu.be/8WfEkXvGQhY.

Citing artwork

Creator, if known. Artwork Title or Description. Year(s) of creation, if viewed in person, Repository Name, City, and—if needed for clarity—State and/or Country, or, if accessed online, Database or Website Name, URL, without http://. If in a book or other print media, include that citation information.

Imperial winter dragon robe. Early nineteenth century, University of Michigan Museum of Art. Clotheslines: A Collection of Poetry and Art, edited by Stan Tymorek, Harry N. Abrams Publishers, 2001, p. 100.

Kahlo, Frido. The Broken Column. 1948, Museo Dolores Olmedo, Mexico City.

Saville, Jenny. Matrix. 1999. ARTstor, library-artstor-org.ezproxy.aacc.edu/#/asset/28252318.

Citing films and television, radio, and podcast episodes

Film

If your focus is on a contributor (screenwriter, performer, director, etc.), start with that name and role. Otherwise, start with Film Title. Relevant Contributors and their roles, version (like director’s cut or unrated ed.), Film Studio and/or Distributor, release date. If from a website or database, include Name (like Netflix or Kanopy), URL, without http://. If applicable, specify app (like Disney+ or HBOMax) or media format (like DVD or blu-ray). If different, include year of film release after the title and year of format release after the Studio.

Aliens. 1986. Extended cut, 20th Century Fox, 1999. DVD.

DuVernay, Ava, director. 13th. Kandoo Films, 2016. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/80091741.

Get Out. Written and directed by Jordan Peele, Universal Pictures, 2017. FXNow app.

TV, radio, or podcast episode or segment

If your focus is on a contributor (director, performer, writer, etc.), start with that name and role. Otherwise, if given, start with "Episode Title" or "Segment." Relevant Contributors to the episode/segment and their roles. Series Title, relevant series Contributors and their roles, version (like podcast ed.), Network and/or Production Company, season and/or episode numbers (if any), date. If from a website or database, include Name (like Films on Demand or NPR), URL, without http://. If applicable, specify app (like Hulu or Paramount+) or media format (like DVD or blu-ray), including air date after episode title, year of format release after Network/Production Company, and disc or other number after year of format release.

"Black Kiss-tory." Hosted by Shereen Marisol Meraji and Karen Grigsby Bates. Code Switch, podcast ed., NPR, 10 Feb. 2021. NPR One app.

Johnson, Clark, director. "The Detail." 2002. The Wire: The Complete Series, created by David Simon, season 1, episode 2, HBO, 2008, disc 1. DVD.

"Subway." Directed by Gary Fleder, written by James Yoshimura. Homicide: Life on the Street, season 6, episode 7, Baltimore Pictures, 5 Dec. 1997.

Citing e-mail and text messages

Author/sender. "Subject Line" or Description. Date. Add E-mail or Text message, if not in description.

Lohr, Gregory. Text message to author. 22 June 2021.

Yandrich, Aaren. "Harryette Mullen’s S*PeRM**k*T." 13 June 2021. E-mail.

Citing class materials

Course material in Canvas

Author, if given. "Title" or Description. Course Title, Instructor. Canvas, School, date, URL, without http://.

Slide of toes. Intro to Human Figures, taught by Nan Wong. Canvas, Anne Arundel Community College, 8 Sept. 2019, aacc.instructure.com/courses/35628/pages/toes.

Selection from a printed course pack

Author (last name first). "Selection Title." Course pack for Course Number and Title, Compiler, term, School.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." Course pack for English 211: Literature of the African Diaspora, compiled by Elizabeth Champlin, spring 2016, Gwinnett University.

Citing live performances

If your focus is on a contributor (performer, playwright, creator, presenter, etc.), start with that name. Title or Description. Relevant Contributors, if any, date, Venue, City.

If your focus is on a contributor (performer, playwright, creator, presenter, etc.), start with that name (last name first). Title or Description. Relevant Contributors, if any, date, Venue, City.

Wilson, August. Radio Golf. Directed by Timothy Douglas, 28 Apr. 2005, Yale Repertory Theatre, New Haven.

Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography