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Citation Guide

Cite sources, create annotated bibliographies, and avoid plagiarism.

Citing online periodical articles and supplements

Note: Omit page numbers if not provided; instead, use Article Numbers, if any.

Periodical articles in library databases

(Cite the same as print articles; omit page numbers, if not given; instead, use Article Numbers, if any).… (if given)

Burunat, E. (2019, August). Love is a physiological motivation (like hunger, thirst, sleep, or sex). Medical Hypotheses, 129, Article 109225.

Articles and supplements from periodical websites

(Cite the same as print articles; include description in brackets to help locate supplements; omit page numbers, if not given; instead, use Article Numbers, if any).… (if given)

Beconyte, G., Eismontaite, A., & Zemaitiene, J. (2014, January 10). Mythical creatures of Europe [Supplemental material: Main map]. Journal of Maps10(1), 53-60. 

Pionke, J. J. (2017). Beyond ADA compliance: The library as a place for all. Urban Library Journal, 23(1), Article 3.

Turkewitz, J. (2019, June 22). Who gets to own the west? The New York Times, p. A1.

Citing blog posts and news site items

Blog posts

Author(s). (Date). Title of post. Blog Title, otherwise, use Periodical Title, if given. (if given) or URL of work cited

Lewis, R. (2020, January 9). Will new knowledge of gender identity genomics counter discrimination? DNA Science.

Items from news sites

Author(s). (Date). Title of article. News Site Name. (if given) or URL 

Illing, S. (2018, April 6). How search engines are making us more racist. Vox.

Citing works published by specific databases or repositories

Works published by specific databases or repositories

Author(s). (Date). Title of work (Document number, if any) [Description of information, if relevant]. Database or Repository. (if given) or, if material is open-access, URL

Abdalla, S. (2018). Experiences of faculty women of color: A literature review (ED582905). ERIC. fulltext/ED582905.pdf

Teen homelessness [Topic overview]. (2019). Gale Opposing Viewpoints Online Collection.

Citing Electronic Books

Note: Omit page numbers and/or publisher, if not provided.

Ebooks in library databases

(Cite the same as print books, omitting, if not provided, publisher name and/or page numbers).… (if given)

Carillo, E. C. (2018). Teaching readers in post-truth America. University Press of Colorado; Utah State University Press.

Mountain oysters. (2014). In J. F. Mariani, The encyclopedia of American food and drink (2nd ed.). Bloomsbury.

Ebooks from websites

(Cite the same as print books, omitting, if not provided, publisher name and/or page numbers). Website, if different than author or title. (if given) or URL for book or section

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

Brownstein, M. (2019). Implicit bias. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2019 ed.). Stanford University.

Citing dissertations and theses

Dissertations and theses

Author. (Year). Dissertation or thesis title (Publication No., if any) [Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis, Name of Institution]. (if given) or Database or Repository and URL

Nkere, N. (2016). Involvement of African-American girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education (Publication No. 10619097) [Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University]. ProQuest Education Database.

O'Brien, S. M. (2019). Unsupervised summarization of public talk radio [Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT.

Citing government webpages and reports

Government webpages or reports without named authors

Agency, office, institute, bureau, or department. (Date). Webpage or report title (Report number or Series Title, number and issue, if any). Parent Agencies, if any. (if given) or URL 

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2019, March). Characteristics of minimum wage workers, 2018 (Report No. 1078). U.S. Department of Labor. minimum-wage/2018/pdf/home.pdf

MedlinePlus. (2020, January 14). Flu. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine.

Government webpages and reports with named authors

Author(s). (Date). Webpage or title of report Title (Report number or Series Title, number and issue, if any). Agency, office, institute, bureau, or department. (if given) or URL

Keisman, J. L. D., Devereau, O. H., LaMotte, A. E., Sekellick, A. J., & Blomquist, J. D. (2018). Manure and fertilizer inputs to land in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, 1950–2012 (Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5022). U.S. Geological Survey. 

Perry, S. W. (2019, July). Tribal crime data-collection activities, 2019 (NCJ 252983). Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Citing webpages

Webpages not from periodical, news, government, or blog sites

Author(s). (Date). Title of webpage [Description of information, if relevant]. Website Name, if different than author.… (if given) or URL

Association of College & Research Libraries. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education.

Laskowski, E. R. (2018, October 26). What is hot yoga? Mayo Clinic.

Citing social media

Social media posts

Author [screen name]. (Date).* Content of post, up to 20 words [Attached media, if any] [Description or Format]. Site Name. URL

Tyson, N. D. [@neiltyson]. (2020, January 7). Climate versus Weather... [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Citing online artwork

Artwork in library databases

(Cite the same as artwork).

Kahlo, F. (1948). La columna rota [The broken column] [Painting]. Museo Dolores Olmedo, Mexico City, Mexico.

Artwork from websites

(Cite the same as artwork). URL

Sherald, A. (2018). First Lady Michelle Obama [Painting]. Smithsonian Institution National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, United States.

Citing online video and audio

Films and TV episodes in library databases

(Cite the same as films and broadcast TV episodes).

Culpepper, M. & Draper, N. (Directors). (2005). Bachelor farmer [Film]. Stick Pony Rodeo Productions.

Rowley, R. (Writer & Director). (2018, November 20). Documenting hate: New American nazis (Season 37, Episode 10) [TV show episode]. In R. Rowley, A. C. Thompson, K. Hajj, J. Soohen, N. Verbitsy (Producers), Frontline. Midnight Films.

Uploaded videos (to YouTube, Vimeo, Instagram, etc.)

Person or group who uploaded the video [screen name, if any]. (Date). Video title [Video]. Website. URL

Singh, L. (2017, June 8). A geography class for racist people [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018, March 6). Sheila Sarem: The social capital gap [Video]. YouTube.

TED Talks from the TED website*

Speaker(s). (Date). Title of talk [Video] TED Conferences. URL

Lee, D. N. (2019, April). How hip-hop helps us understand science [Video]. TED Conferences.

*If, instead, the talk is on a TED or TEDx YouTube channel, cite it as a YouTube video.

Audio and video podcast episodes

Host(s) or Executive Producer(s). (Date). Title of episode (Episode number, if given) [Audio or Video podcast episode]. In Podcast title. Production Company, if any. URL, if known

Britt, M. A. (2019, April 4). An introduction to cross cultural psychology [Audio podcast episode]. In The psych files.

Digital versions of speeches, readings, interviews, etc.

Speaker(s) or Interviewee(s). (Date). Title, if any [Description, e.g., Interview, Reading video recording, Speech audio recording, etc.]. Digital Repository; Parent Organization, if any. Website, if different than Repository/Organization. URL

Wilson, M. (1987, January 30). Off the record interview with Mary Wilson, 1987-01-30 [Interview]. Joe Smith Collection; Library of Congress.

Online slideshows (PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.)

 Author(s). (Date). Presentation title [Description, i.e., PowerPoint slides, Prezi slides, etc.]. Website. URL

Le Meur, E. (2017, January 11). How to think like a startup [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. 

Citing personal communications

Personal communications include emails, letters, text and direct messages, telephone and in-person conversations, interviews, and any other unrecoverable, unarchived sources. Because they are difficult to recover, they are not listed in bibliographies and references pages; instead, they are cited in-text only. Example:

(E. A. Champlin, personal communication, May 3, 2017)

Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography