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Citation Guide

Cite sources, create annotated bibliographies, and avoid plagiarism.

Citing entire books

Book by a single author

Author. Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year.

Broome, Brian. Punch Me Up to the Gods: A Memoir. Mariner Books, 2021.

Gorman, Amanda. The Hill We Climb: An Inaugural Poem for the Country. Viking, 2021.

Book by two authors

First author (Last, First), and Second Author (First Last). Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year.

Snell, Karen, and Johan Söderman. Hip-Hop within and without the Academy. Lexington Books, 2014.

Book by three or more authors

Author, et al. Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year.

Neeve, Dorinda, et al. Asian Art. Pearson, 2015.

Book with editors

Editor name(s), editor(s). Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year.

Jung, Moon-Kie, and João H. Costa Vargas, editors. Antiblackness. Duke UP, 2021.

Niemann, Yolanda Flores, et al., editors. Presumed Incompetent II: Race, Class, Power, and Resistance of Women in Academia. UP of Colorado, 2020.

Organizational or institutional author

Name of Organization or Institution (when alphabetizing, ignore initial articles like A, An, and The). Book Title: Subtitle. Publisher, year

New York Public Library. Treasures. St. Martin’s Press, 2021.

Publisher is author, or author is unknown

Book Title: Subtitle (when alphabetizing, ignore initial articles like A, An, and The). Publisher, year.

American Indians and Route 66. American Indian Alaska Native Tourism Association, 2016.

Citizen Development: The Handbook for Creators and Change Makers. Project Management Institute, 2021.

Edition other than the first

Author. Book Title: Subtitle. Number or other description of edition—i.e., expanded, abbreviated, revised (abbreviated rev.)—whatever is specified, Publisher, year.

Levins Morales, Aurora. Medicine Stories: Essays for Radicals. Rev. and expanded ed., Duke UP, 2019.

Saraswati, L. Ayu, et al., editors. Introduction to Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies: Interdisciplinary and Intersectional Approaches. 2nd ed., Oxford UP, 2020.

Scholarly or classic edition of a book

Author of the primary work. Book Title: Subtitle. Year of original work, if known. If scholarly edition, Editor (if any), Publisher, year.

Silko, Leslie Mormon. Ceremony. 1977. Penguin Books, 2006.

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club. 1989. Edited by Harold Bloom, Bloom's Literary Criticism, 2009.

Book in a named series

Author. Book Title: Subtitle. Book, series, or general editor (if applicable), Publisher, year. Name of Series and series number (if any).

Clifton, Lucille. The Collected Poems of Lucille Clifton, 1965-2010. Edited by Kevin Young and Michael S. Glaser, BOA Editions, 2012. American Poets Continuum Series 134.

Book in multivolume series

Author or Editor. Title of Multivolume Series: Subtitle. Book, series, or general editor (if applicable), edition (if any), volume, Publisher, year. Total volumes in series, if known. If individual volume has a unique title, list volume number, series title, and relevant contributors after publication year.

David, Gabriel. Trailblazers, Black Women Who Helped Make America Great: American Firsts/American Icons. Vol. 1, 2Leaf Press / U of Chicago P, 2021. 6 vols.

Malone, Bill C., editor. Music. U of North Carolina P, 2013. Vol. 12 of The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Charles Regan Wilson, general editor, 24 vols.

Book in translation

Author. Book Title: Subtitle. Editor, if any, Translator, Publisher, year.

Césaire, Suzanne. The Great Camouflage: Writings of Dissent (1941-1945). Edited by Daniel Maximin, translated by Keith L. Walker, Wesleyan UP, 2009.

Book with illustrations or photographs

Author or Editor. Book Title: Subtitle. Illustrator and/or Photographer, Publisher, year.

Bloomfield, April, and J. J. Goode. A Girl and her Greens: Hearty Meals from the Garden. Photographs by David Loftus, illustrated by Sun Young Park, Ecco, 2015.

Comic book or graphic narrative

Author. Title of Issue, if unique. If relevant, Contributors to the issue and their roles (e.g., penciler, inker, colorist, letterer, etc.). Series Title, series contributors and roles (if relevant), issue number, Publisher, year.

Wilson, G. Willow. Game Over. Penciled by Takeshi Miyazawa. Ms. Marvel, no. 17, Marvel Comics, 2017.

Citing parts of books

Book section (preface, introduction, afterword, etc.)

Author of section. "Section Title" or Description. Book Title: Subtitle, Editor, edition, and volume (if any), Publisher, year, page(s). Total volumes (if any).

Kendi, Ibrim X. "A Community of Souls: An Introduction." Four Hundred Souls: A Community History of African America, 1619–2019, edited by Kendi and Keisha N. Blain, One World, 2021, pp. xiii–xvii.

Gordon-Reed, Annette. Foreword. Racism: A Reader, edited by Cole Brown, Harvard UP, 2020, pp. xvii–xxiii.

Encyclopedia, dictionary, or handbook entry

Author of entry, if known. "Heading (part of speech and entry number, if applicable)." Book Title: Subtitle, Editor, edition, and volume (if any), Publisher, year, page(s). Total volumes (if any).

"Absurd, Adj. (2)." Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., Merriam-Webster, 2020, p. 5.

Dunlap, Janeria. "Stereotype Threat." Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, edited by Patrick L. Mason, 2nd ed., vol. 4, Macmillan Reference USA, 2013, pp. 136–40. 4 vols.

Work in an anthology

Author of selection, if known. "Selection Title." Anthology Title: Subtitle, Editor, edition, and volume (if any), Publisher, year, page(s). Total volumes or series title and number (if any). Previous publication information, if relevant.

Chinn, Sarah E. "Feeling Her Way: Audre Lorde and the Power of Touch." Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, edited by Thomas J. Schoenberg and Lawrence J. Trudeau, vol. 173, Gale, 2006, pp. 123–36. Originally published in GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, vol. 9, no. 1-2, 2003, pp. 181–204.

Hair, William I., and Amy Louise Wood. "Lynching and Racial Violence." Race, edited by Thomas C. Holt and Laurie B. Green, pp. 87–91. The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture, Charles Regan Wilson, general editor, vol. 24, U of North Carolina P, 2013. 24 vols.

Plath, Sylvia. "Daddy." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, Drama, and Writing, edited by X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia, 2nd Custom Edition for Anne Arundel Community College, Part 2: Poetry, Pearson, 2013, pp. 1116–18.

Shanté, Roxanne. "Roxanne's Revenge." The Anthology of Rap, edited by Adam Bradley and Andrew DuBois, Yale UP, 2010, pp. 283–86.

Wilson, Jamie J., et al. "Freedom Summer 1964." 50 Events that Shaped African American History: An Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic, edited by Wilson, Vol. 2, Greenwood, 2020, pp. 484–500. Religion in Politics and Science Today.

Citing e-books

eBook download of print book

Cite as you would a printed source, with e-book as edition.

Parrish, Tim. Fear and What Follows: The Violent Education of a Christian Racist, A Memoir. E-book ed., UP of Mississippi, 2013.

Sullivan, Shannon. Good White People: The Problem with Middle-Class White Anti-Racism. Edited by Robert Bernasconi and T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting, e-book ed., State U of New York P, 2014. Philosophy and Race.

eBook or eBook section from a database or website

Cite as you would in print, omitting, if not given, page numbers and other print publication details, Database or Website, If no DOI, use the resource’s URL (a permalink URL, when available), without http://.

"Anti-Racist Feminism." Feminist Philosophies A-Z, edited by Nancy McHugh, Edinburgh UP, 2007. Credo Reference,

Brownstein, Michael. "Implicit Bias." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N. Zalta, fall ed., 2019. Stanford University,

Derks, Scott. "Jazz Singer and Dancer." Women at Work, 2nd ed., Grey House Publishing, 2015, pp.187–216. Vol. 6 of Working Americans. ProQuest Ebook Central,

Dyson, Michael Eric. Holler If You Hear Me: Searching for Tupac Shakur. Basic Civitas Books, 2006. Ebook Central,

Reed, Alison. "Introduction, Part II: Poetic Knowledge: On Why Art Matters to Antiracism Inc." Antiracism Inc.: Why the Way We Talk about Racial Justice Matters, edited by Felice Blake et al., Punctum Books, pp. 41–52. JSTOR,

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