If you use machine-generated citations – from databases or online citation machines – make sure to check them carefully against the examples in this guide! They frequently contain errors and/or use outdated style guidelines.
APA (American Psychological Association) Style is typically used in social science disciplines like psychology, sociology, and education. It can also be used in fields like business, communications, criminal justice, and health professions. Always consult your assignment or your instructor for the correct citation style to use.
Note Citation styles change over time. Examples in this guide follow the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020), which is the current version. If you find citations elsewhere, make sure they follow the correct edition!
Below, see basic information about APA-style citations, plus resources to learn more. On other pages (linked in the guide menu), you'll find templates and examples for creating citations for books, articles, audiovisuals, and other sources of information.
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