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Citation Guide

Cite sources, create annotated bibliographies, and avoid plagiarism.

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Citing conference events

Conference sessions and presentations

Presenter(s). (Date or Date range of conference). Contribution title [Format; e.g., Paper presentation, Poster presentation, etc.]. Conference Name, City, State/Province (if any), Country. (if given)

Walker, M. (2020, February 27-29). Coming out with a bang: Creating a successful product launch. Black Women Tech Talk, New York, NY, United States.

Citing artwork


Creator(s). (Year of artwork). Title of artwork (if untitled, describe artwork in brackets) [Medium]. Repository of Artwork, City, State/Province (if any), Country. 

Kusy, W. (1994). Lusitania [Toothpicks]. The American Visionary Arts Museum, Baltimore, MD, United States. 

Citing online artwork

Artwork in library databases

(Cite the same as artwork).

Kahlo, F. (1948). La columna rota [The broken column] [Painting]. Museo Dolores Olmedo, Mexico City, Mexico.

Artwork from websites

(Cite the same as artwork). URL

Sherald, A. (2018). First Lady Michelle Obama [Painting]. Smithsonian Institution National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, United States.

Citing video and audio materials


Director(s) (if unknown, use other named role(s), like Host(s), Guest Expert(s), etc.). (Year of release). Title [Medium]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

DuVernay, A. (Director). (2016). 13th [Film]. Kandoo Films.

Cunliffe, M. (Director). (2014). The science of measurement [Film; educational DVD]. Big Wave Productions; BBC; Athena Learning; RLJ Entertainment.

Television series

Executive Producer(s). Series title [TV series; when relevant, description of version and/or format]. Production Company; if two or more, separate with semicolon(s).

Hardy, T., Scott, R., Marshall, L., Crowe, K., Baker, D., Knight, S., & Lesinski, T. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). Taboo [TV series]. Scott Free London; Hardy Son & Baker.

Episodes of television series

Writer(s), & Director(s). (Broadcast or copyright date). Episode title (Season, Episode numbers) [TV Series episode]. In Producer(s), Series title. Production Company; if two or more, separate with semicolon(s). 

Murphy, R. (Writer), and Mock, J. (Writer & Director). (2018, July 8). Love is the message (Season 1, Episode 6) [TV series episode]. In R. Murphy, B. Falchuk, N. Jacobson, B. Simpson, A. M. Woodall, S. Marsh, & S. Canals (Executive Producers), Pose. Color Force; Brad Falchuk Teley-Vision; Ryan Murphy Television; Fox 21 Television Studios; FXP.

Music albums

Recording Artist(s). (Year of release). Album title [Album; when relevant, description of version and/or format]. Label; if two or more, separate with semicolon(s).

DiFranco, A. (1995). Not a pretty girl [Album]. Righteous Babe.

Songs or tracks

Recording Artist(s). (Year of release). Song title [Song]. On Album title (if any). Label; if two or more, separate with semicolon(s). 

Berninger, M., & Bridgers, P. (2019). Walking on a string [Song]. Dead Oceans.

The Notorious B.I.G. (1997). Mo money mo problems [Song]. On Life after death. Bad Boy Records; Arista.

Citing online video and audio

Films and TV episodes in library databases

(Cite the same as films and broadcast TV episodes).

Culpepper, M. & Draper, N. (Directors). (2005). Bachelor farmer [Film]. Stick Pony Rodeo Productions.

Rowley, R. (Writer & Director). (2018, November 20). Documenting hate: New American nazis (Season 37, Episode 10) [TV show episode]. In R. Rowley, A. C. Thompson, K. Hajj, J. Soohen, N. Verbitsy (Producers), Frontline. Midnight Films.

Uploaded videos (to YouTube, Vimeo, Instagram, etc.)

Person or group who uploaded the video [screen name, if any]. (Date). Video title [Video]. Website. URL

Singh, L. (2017, June 8). A geography class for racist people [Video]. YouTube.

TEDx Talks. (2018, March 6). Sheila Sarem: The social capital gap [Video]. YouTube.

TED Talks from the TED website*

Speaker(s). (Date). Title of talk [Video] TED Conferences. URL

Lee, D. N. (2019, April). How hip-hop helps us understand science [Video]. TED Conferences.

*If, instead, the talk is on a TED or TEDx YouTube channel, cite it as a YouTube video.

Audio and video podcast episodes

Host(s) or Executive Producer(s). (Date). Title of episode (Episode number, if given) [Audio or Video podcast episode]. In Podcast title. Production Company, if any. URL, if known

Britt, M. A. (2019, April 4). An introduction to cross cultural psychology [Audio podcast episode]. In The psych files.

Digital versions of speeches, readings, interviews, etc.

Speaker(s) or Interviewee(s). (Date). Title, if any [Description, e.g., Interview, Reading video recording, Speech audio recording, etc.]. Digital Repository; Parent Organization, if any. Website, if different than Repository/Organization. URL

Wilson, M. (1987, January 30). Off the record interview with Mary Wilson, 1987-01-30 [Interview]. Joe Smith Collection; Library of Congress.

Online slideshows (PowerPoint, Prezi, etc.)

 Author(s). (Date). Presentation title [Description, i.e., PowerPoint slides, Prezi slides, etc.]. Website. URL

Le Meur, E. (2017, January 11). How to think like a startup [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. 

Citing personal communications

Personal communications include emails, letters, text and direct messages, telephone and in-person conversations, interviews, and any other unrecoverable, unarchived sources. Because they are difficult to recover, they are not listed in bibliographies and references pages; instead, they are cited in-text only. Example:

(E. A. Champlin, personal communication, May 3, 2017)

Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography