For more detailed information, consult the authoritative source:
MLA Handbook, 8th edition.
Ask at the Reference Desk.
MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.
If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.
Webpage or part of a webpage
Author of Page or Part (last name first), and additional Author's Name, if only one (first name first), or, if more than two, et al. (If no author, start with “Title” or Title, ignoring initial articles when alphabetizing.) “Title of Page or Part.” And/or description of page or part. Website, Publishing Organization (often specified in copyright, “about us,” and FAQs pages; a blog network can be presented as the publisher of a blog it hosts; if the publisher and website name are the same, list it only once), date of publication, page(s) (if applicable), URL, without http://.
"Analogy: Bird and Bat Wing.” Diagrams. Understanding Evolution, University of California Museum of Paleontology, 2016, evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/evo_09.
Burrard-Lucas, Will. “Elephant.” Photograph. World Wildlife Fund, 2016, www.worldwildlife.org/species/elephant.
Cosmides, Leda, and John Tooby. “Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer.” Center for Evolutionary Psychology, U of California Santa Barbara, 13 Jan. 1997, www.cep.ucsb.edu/primer.html.
Paine, Neil. “The Rise—And Rise!—Of Nneka Ogwumike.” FiveThirtyEight, 29 July 2016, 4:35 p.m., fivethirtyeight.com/features/the-rise-and-rise-of-nneka-ogwumike.
“What’s New in the Eighth Edition.” MLA Style, Modern Language Association, 2016, www.mla.org/MLA-Style/What-s-New-in-the-Eighth-Edition.
Present username as author and, without changes, entire tweet as title. Include the time of the post after the date.
@JasonIsbell. “Psst: Aretha doesn't steal a show. The shows belong to Aretha." Twitter, 30 Dec. 2015, 10:11 a.m., twitter.com/JasonIsbell/status/ 682262820403167237.
Online lecture, speech, address, reading, Prezi, PowerPoint, or other presentation
Presenter (last name first) or username. “Presentation Title.” Title of Database or Website, uploader (if named, and if not the presenter), day month year, time presented or posted, if provided, URL, without http://.
Bittman, Mark. “What’s Wrong with What We Eat.” TEDTalks, Dec. 2007, www.ted.com/talks/mark_bittman_on_what_s_wrong_with_what_we_eat.
Marjai, Petra. “The Magical Theory of Relativity.” Prezi, 17 Oct. 2013, prezi.com/vgj5kiy-3zsd/the-magical-theory-of-relativity.
Robinson, Ken. “Changing Education Paradigms.” YouTube, uploaded by The RSA, 14 Oct. 2010, youtu.be/zDZFcDGpL4U.
Tyson, Neil DeGrasse. “What the World Looks Like to an Astrophysicist 2013.” YouTube, uploaded by ScienceNET, 13 Jan. 2014, youtu.be/YVeTqJQDu60.
Present the subject line as the "Title," using title case.
Film or video recordings
If your discussion focuses on a contributor (director, writer, performer, etc.), start with that name (last name first), description. Otherwise, start with the film’s Title, then present relevant contributors and include the version, if given (e.g., director’s cut, unrated ed., etc.), then Film Studio or Distributor, date of release. If viewing a DVD, include year of film release after the film title and year of DVD release after the Studio/Distributor, if they’re different. If accessed online, include Name of Database, if any (e.g., Netflix, Academic Video Online, etc.), URL, without http://.
Good Cop, Baby Cop. Performances by Will Ferrell and Adam “Ghost Panther” McCay, 25 June 2007. Funny or Die, www.funnyordie.com/videos/33f2687080.
Parisot, Dean, director. Galaxy Quest, performances by Tim Allen and Sigourney Weaver, Dreamworks, 1999. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/28369403.
Scott, Ridley, director. Blade Runner. 1982. Director’s cut, Warner Home Video, 1999.
Serenity, written by Joss Wheedon, directed by Barry Mendel, Universal Pictures, 2005.
Television or radio episode, segment, or program
If your discussion focuses on a contributor (creator, writer, director, performer, etc.), start with that name (last name first), description. Otherwise, start with “Segment,” “Episode,” or Program Title. When citing a whole series, include its run span, if more than one year. For episodes, include season and episode numbers. If viewing a DVD set, include air date after episode title, year of DVD release after Distribution Company, and disc number at the end. If accessed online, include Name of Database or Website, URL, without http://.
Simon, David, writer. “The Detail.” 2002. The Wire: The Complete Series, directed by Clark Johnson, season 1, episode 2, Home Box Office, 2008, disc 1.
“Subway.” Homicide: Life on the Street, directed by Gary Fleder, written by James Yoshimura, performance by Vincent D’Onofrio, season 6, episode 7, Baltimore Pictures, 5 Dec. 1997.
"Trainer Turns Pit Bull into Therapy Dog." Weekend Edition, NPR, 21 June 2008, 8:00 a.m., www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=91769901.
Wheedon, Joss, creator. Firefly. Mutant Enemy, 2002.
Creator (last name, first name). Title of Artwork. Year(s) of creation, Repository, City, State or Country (if required for precision). If accessed online, include Name of Database or Website, URL, without http://. If viewed in a book, include the book’s citation information.
Ernst, Max. The Hat Makes the Man. 1920, The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Clotheslines: A Collection of Poetry & Art, edited by Stan Tymorek, Harry N. Abrams Publishers, 2001, p. 18.
Klimt, Gustav. Baby (Cradle). 1917-1918, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.56662.html.
Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography