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Citation Guide (archived): Other Resources - APA

A guide to creating citations for bibliographies and works cited pages

This guide does NOT use the latest APA style guidelines

These examples follow guidelines from the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2013), which are currently out of date. Examples that reflect the 7th edition guidelines (2020) are available now at

Websites for APA Style Citations

Many of these sites offer information about constructing in-text citations, as well as constructing citations for bibliographies and references lists: 

Please Note

Citations should be double-spaced in an actual Bibliography, Works Cited, or References list, and works should be ordered alphabetically by author.

Citing Other Resources - APA

Government reports - no named author
Department, office, agency, institute, or other division. If not well known, precede with the higher organization(s). (Year). Title of report (Report number, if any). Publication place: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1995). Correctional populations of the United States, 1992 (NCJ 146413). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Government reports - named author
Author(s). (Date). Title of report (Report number, if any). Publication place: Publisher.

Russo, F. (2018, September 6). Energy infrastructure permitting: Factors affecting timeliness and efficiency (GAO-18-693T). Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.

Personal communications (interviews, emails, etc.)
Personal communications, because they are difficult to recover, are not listed in bibliographies and works cited pages; instead, they are cited in-text only, for example:

(J. Binny, personal communication, March 28, 2008)

Creator(s). (Year of artwork). Title of artwork [medium of artwork]. Repository of artwork, city, state.

Kusy, W. (1994). Lusitania [toothpicks]. The American Visionary Art Museum, Baltimore, MD.

Films and videos 
Producer Name(s) (Producer(s)), & Director Name (Director). (Year of release). Title [Medium (Motion picture, DVD, Videocassette, etc.)]. Country of origin: Studio or Distributor.

Clooney, G. (Producer), Heslov, G. (Producer), & Affleck, B. (Producer & Director). (2012). Argo [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.

Miller, K. P., & Gilchrist, C. L. (Producers), & Miller, K. P. (Director). (2008). Generation Rx [DVD]. Canada: Common Radius Films.

Broadcast episodes of television series
Scriptwriter(s) (Writer(s)), & Director’s Name (Director). (Broadcast date or copyright). Episode title [Television series episode]. In Producer(s) (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Station or Network.

Yoshimura, J. (Writer), & Fleder, G. (Director). (1997, December 5). The subway [Television series episode]. In B. Levinson (Producer), Homicide: Life on the Streets. New York, NY: National Broadcasting Company.

Broadast radio program segments or episodes
Primary contributor(s) (Role(s)). (Broadcast or copyright date). Episode/segment title. In Producer(s) (Producer(s)), Series title [Radio program]. City, State: station.

Gladstone, B. (Host & Managing Ed.). (2004, May 24). Gender detector. In J. Keefe (Producer), On the media [Radio program]. New York, NY: WNYC.

Writer(s). (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist (if not the writer)]. On Album title  [Medium of recording (CD, LP, Audio file, etc.)]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright)

Dylan, B. (1975).  Tangled up in blue [Recorded by The Indigo Girls]. On 1200 curfews [CD]. New York, NY: Sony. (1995)

Smalls, B. (1997). Mo money mo problems. On Life after Death [Audio file]. New York, NY: Bad Boy Records.

Citing Online Audio/Visual Materials - APA

Artwork - library databases

(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from Database Name database

Kahlo, F. (1948). Self-portrait [painting]. University of California, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from ARTstor database.

Artwork - websites
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL

Kantarovsky, S. (2016). Feeder [painting]. The Tate, London, England. Retrieved from

Streaming films and videos - library databases
(Cite as you would films and videos, specifying the medium [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.

Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from Academic Video Online database.

Films and videos - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, s
pecifying the medium [Streaming video] or [Video file]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu

Feige, K. (Producer), & Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black panther [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from

Radio/TV episodes/segments - library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments, specifying the medium [Streaming audio] or [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.

DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Streaming audio]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database. 

Radio/TV/Podcast episodes/segments - websites
(Cite as you would
broadcast episodes/segments), specifying the medium [Streaming audio, Audio file, or Audio podcast] or [Streaming video, Video file or Video podcast]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu

Folkenflik, D. (Host & Ed.). (2018, August 31). Breaking political norms in the age of Trump [Audio podcast]. In On point [Radio program]. Boston, MA: WBUR. Retrieved from

Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Streaming video]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retrieved from

Lectures - websites
Speaker(s) [screen name, if any]. (Date). Lecture or video title [Streaming video] or [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

Barry, K. (2004). Brain magic [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

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