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Citation Guide: Online Resources - APA

A guide to creating citations for bibliographies and works cited pages

This guide does NOT use the latest APA style guidelines

These examples follow guidelines from the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2013), which are currently out of date. Examples that reflect the 7th edition guidelines (2020) are available now at

Websites for APA Style Citations

Many of these sites offer information about constructing in-text citations, as well as constructing citations for bibliographies and references lists: 

Electronic Info - APA


  • When available, include a DOI (digital object identifier); look for a DOI at the beginning or end of an article
  • Many DOIs will start with or
  • Using is now preferred by APA
  • For more information, see; to see if an article has a DOI assigned to it, use
  • For more information, see the DOI website. To see if an article or book has a DOI assigned to it, use

Library Databases - No DOI

  • For an article, use the periodical's homepage URL instead; if none exists, use the Database Name instead
  • For eBooks, we well as video, audio, and other multimedia resources, use the Database name instead


  • web address usually starts with http:// or https://
  • Provide the homepage URL, rather than a very long direct URL, when an item is easily found with a search


  • If unlikely to change (like articles in library databases, or any works also published in print), a retrieval date is not needed
  • Use (n.d.) if no date is given for publication or copyright

Please Note

Citations should be double-spaced in an actual Bibliography, Works Cited, or References list, and works should be ordered alphabetically by author.

Citing Articles from Library Databases - APA

Periodical articles - library databases, with DOI
 (Cite as you would articles in print).

(For more information about DOIs, see left, "Electronic Info - APA")

Hirata, S. (2018). Fake snakes uncover chimpanzees' mind-reading ability. Learning & Behavior, 46(3), 225-226.

Martin, J., & Tokada, K. (2007, December). Face recognition in chimpanzees. Behavioral Sciences Journal, 21(4), 39-57.

Periodical articles - Library Databases, no DOI
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). Retrieved from hompage URL of the periodical - if none exists, Database Name.

Gerdes, V. (1963). Insuring the flood peril. Journal of Insurance, 33(4), 547-553.  Retrieved from JSTOR database. 

Spending at Humana trims profit. (2012, May 1). The New York Times, p. B2. Retrieved from

Citing Articles from Periodical Websites - APA

Periodicals articles from websites 
(Cite as you would
articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). or Retrieved from periodical hompage URL

Bishop, K. & Kimball, M. A. (2006, Fall). Engaging students in storytelling. Teacher Librarian, 33(4), 28-31. Retrieved from

Muller, C. M. P., Brenner, E., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2009). Maybe they are all circles: Clues and cues. Journal of Vision, 9(9), 1-5. https//

Online-only periodical supplements
(Cite as you would
articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers; include descriptions in brackets that help locate materials, e.g., [Supplemental material], [Audio podcast], [Editorial], etc.). or Retrieved Access date (only if material is likely to change), from periodical homepage URL

Beconyte, G., Eismontaite, A. & Zemaitiene, J. (2014, January 10). Mythical creatures of Europe [Supplemental material: Main map]. Journal of Maps, 10(1), 53-60.

Citing eBooks

eBooks - library databases and websites
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting publisher name and location, and, if not provided, page numbers). or Retrieved from Database Name. or URL

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). 

Prairie oyster. (2002). In Rawson's dictionary of euphemisms and other doubletalk. Retrieved from Credo Reference database.

Sartwell, C. (2016). Beauty. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2017 ed.). Retrieved from

eBooks - eReaders and downloads
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting publisher name and location, and, if not provided, page numbers) [eReader version or file type]. or Retrieved from homepage URL of the site where the book was downloaded

Drum, D., & Zierenberg, T. (2006). The type 2 diabetes sourcebook (3rd ed.) [Adobe Digital Editions version].

Undin, J. (2008). Heart times. In M. Meyer (Ed.), Essays on hope  (rev. ed., pp. 487-491) [Kindle Fire version]. Retrieved from

Citing Websites - APA

Author(s). (Date). Title of webpage (italicize stand-alone documents) [format, if relevant]. Retrieved Access Date (only if material is likely to change), from Site Name website: (if not evident from URL, title, or author name) URL. 

Bedolla, L. G. (2017). Letter from the director. Retrieved from The Institute of Governmental Studies website: 

Association of College & Research Libraries. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education. Retrieved from

Hanson, R. (2018, January 4). Kaczynski's collapse theory [Blog post]. Retrieved from

House Stark. (2018, September 20). Retrieved September 25, 2018 from

Online government reports
(Cite as you would printed sources, omitting location and publisher). Retrieved from URL, or, if agency is not the author, Retrieved from Agency Name website: URL

U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018, August). Highlights of women's earnings in 2017 (Report 1075) Retrieved from

Abma, J. C., & Martinez, G. M. (2017, June 22). Sexual activity and contraceptive use among teenagers in the United States, 2011 - 2015 (National Health Statistics Report No. 104). Retrieved from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics website:

Citing Social Media - APA

Social media
Author or Group [screen name]. (Date).* Entire Twitter post or truncated version of Facebook update [Form description]. Retrieved from the post's URL

Obama, B. [Barack Obama] (2009, October 9). Humbled. obamaforamerica/gGM45m [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775

*To differentiate posts from the same person in the same year or same day, use "a" or "b" after the year.l

Citing Online Audio/Visual Materials - APA

Artwork - library databases

(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from Database Name database

Kahlo, F. (1948). Self-portrait [painting]. University of California, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from ARTstor database.

Artwork - websites
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL

Kantarovsky, S. (2016). Feeder [painting]. The Tate, London, England. Retrieved from

Streaming films and videos - library databases
(Cite as you would films and videos, specifying the medium [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.

Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from Academic Video Online database.

Films and videos - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, s
pecifying the medium [Streaming video] or [Video file]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu

Feige, K. (Producer), & Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black panther [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from

Radio/TV episodes/segments - library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments, specifying the medium [Streaming audio] or [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.

DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Streaming audio]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database. 

Radio/TV/Podcast episodes/segments - websites
(Cite as you would
broadcast episodes/segments), specifying the medium [Streaming audio, Audio file, or Audio podcast] or [Streaming video, Video file or Video podcast]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu

Folkenflik, D. (Host & Ed.). (2018, August 31). Breaking political norms in the age of Trump [Audio podcast]. In On point [Radio program]. Boston, MA: WBUR. Retrieved from

Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Streaming video]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retrieved from

Lectures - websites
Speaker(s) [screen name, if any]. (Date). Lecture or video title [Streaming video] or [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

Barry, K. (2004). Brain magic [Streaming video]. Retrieved from

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