MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.
If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.
Government reports - no named author
Department, office, agency, institute, or other division. If not well known, precede with the higher organization(s). (Year). Title of report (Report number, if any). Publication place: Publisher.
U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1995). Correctional populations of the United States, 1992 (NCJ 146413). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
Government reports - named author
Author(s). (Date). Title of report (Report number, if any). Publication place: Publisher.
Russo, F. (2018, September 6). Energy infrastructure permitting: Factors affecting timeliness and efficiency (GAO-18-693T). Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.
Personal communications (interviews, emails, etc.)
Personal communications, because they are difficult to recover, are not listed in bibliographies and works cited pages; instead, they are cited in-text only, for example:
(J. Binny, personal communication, March 28, 2008)
Creator(s). (Year of artwork). Title of artwork [medium of artwork]. Repository of artwork, city, state.
Kusy, W. (1994). Lusitania [toothpicks]. The American Visionary Art Museum, Baltimore, MD.
Clooney, G. (Producer), Heslov, G. (Producer), & Affleck, B. (Producer & Director). (2012). Argo [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.
Miller, K. P., & Gilchrist, C. L. (Producers), & Miller, K. P. (Director). (2008). Generation Rx [DVD]. Canada: Common Radius Films.
Broadcast episodes of television series
Scriptwriter(s) (Writer(s)), & Director’s Name (Director). (Broadcast date or copyright). Episode title [Television series episode]. In Producer(s) (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: Station or Network.
Yoshimura, J. (Writer), & Fleder, G. (Director). (1997, December 5). The subway [Television series episode]. In B. Levinson (Producer), Homicide: Life on the Streets. New York, NY: National Broadcasting Company.
Broadast radio program segments or episodes
Primary contributor(s) (Role(s)). (Broadcast or copyright date). Episode/segment title. In Producer(s) (Producer(s)), Series title [Radio program]. City, State: station.
Gladstone, B. (Host & Managing Ed.). (2004, May 24). Gender detector. In J. Keefe (Producer), On the media [Radio program]. New York, NY: WNYC.
Writer(s). (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist (if not the writer)]. On Album title [Medium of recording (CD, LP, Audio file, etc.)]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright)
Dylan, B. (1975). Tangled up in blue [Recorded by The Indigo Girls]. On 1200 curfews [CD]. New York, NY: Sony. (1995)
Smalls, B. (1997). Mo money mo problems. On Life after Death [Audio file]. New York, NY: Bad Boy Records.
Artwork - library databases
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from Database Name database
Kahlo, F. (1948). Self-portrait [painting]. University of California, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from ARTstor database.
Artwork - websites
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL
Kantarovsky, S. (2016). Feeder [painting]. The Tate, London, England. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/kantarovsky-feeder-t14830
Streaming films and videos - library databases
(Cite as you would films and videos, specifying the medium [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.
Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.
Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from Academic Video Online database.
Films and videos - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, specifying the medium [Streaming video] or [Video file]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu
Feige, K. (Producer), & Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black panther [Streaming video]. Retrieved from https://netflix.com
Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.funnyordie.com/2007/4/12/17665736/the-landlord
Radio/TV episodes/segments - library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments, specifying the medium [Streaming audio] or [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.
DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Streaming audio]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.
Radio/TV/Podcast episodes/segments - websites
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments), specifying the medium [Streaming audio, Audio file, or Audio podcast] or [Streaming video, Video file or Video podcast]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu
Folkenflik, D. (Host & Ed.). (2018, August 31). Breaking political norms in the age of Trump [Audio podcast]. In On point [Radio program]. Boston, MA: WBUR. Retrieved from http://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2018/08/31/political-norms-trump-washington
Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Streaming video]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retrieved from http://www.hulu.com
Lectures - websites
Speaker(s) [screen name, if any]. (Date). Lecture or video title [Streaming video] or [Video file]. Retrieved from URL
Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://youtube.com/watch?v=Vra84LKESfs
Barry, K. (2004). Brain magic [Streaming video]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/keith_barry_does_brain_magic
Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography