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Citation Guide: Other Resources - APA

A guide to creating citations for bibliographies and works cited pages

Websites for APA Style Citations

Many of these sites offer information about constructing in-text citations, as well as constructing citations for bibliographies and references lists: 


MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.

If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.

Please Note

Citations should be double-spaced in an actual Bibliography, Works Cited, or References list, and works should be ordered alphabetically by author.

Citing Other Resources - APA

Government reports
Department, office, agency, or institute that produced the report. If not well known, precede with the higher organization(s). (Year). Title of report (Report number, if available). Place of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Justice. Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1995). Correctional populations of the United States, 1992 (NCJ 146413). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Personal communications (conversations, interviews, letters, emails, etc.)
Personal communications, because they are difficult to recover, are not listed in bibliographies and works cited pages; instead, they are cited in-text only, for example:

(J. Binny, personal communication, March 28, 2008)

Creator name. (Year of artwork). Title of artwork [medium of artwork]. Repository of artwork, city, state.

Kusy, W. (1994). Lusitania [toothpicks]. American Visionary Art Museum, Baltimore, MD.

Film or video
Producer name(s) (Producer(s)), & Director name (Director). (Year of release). Title [Medium (Motion picture, DVD, Videocassette, etc.)]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Clooney, G., Heslov, G., & Affleck, B. (Producers), & Affleck, B. (Director). (2012). Argo [Motion picture]. United States: Warner Bros.

Miller, K. P., & Gilchrist, C. L. (Producers), & Miller, K. P. (Director). (2008). Generation Rx [DVD]. Canada: Common Radius Films.

Broadcast episodes from television series
Script writer name (Writer), & Director’s name (Director). (Broadcast date or copyright). Episode title [Television series episode]. In Producer’s name (Producer), Series title. City, state of origin: station or network.

Yoshimura, J. (Writer), & Fleder, G. (Director). (1997, December 5). The subway [Television series episode]. In B. Levinson (Producer), Homicide: Life on the Streets. New York, NY: National Broadcasting Company.

Broadast radio program segments or episodes
Primary contributor name (Role). (Broadcast date or copyright). Episode/segment title. In Producer's Name (Producer), Series title [Radio program]. City, state of origin: station.

Gladstone, B. (Host and managing editor). (2004, May 24). Gender detector. In J. Keefe (Producer), On the media [Radio program]. New York, NY: WNYC.

Writer. (Copyright date). Title of song [Recorded by Artist (if not the writer)]. On Title of album [Medium of recording (CD, LP, Audio file, etc.)]. Location: Label. (Recording date if different from copyright)

Dylan, B. (1975).  Tangled up in blue [Recorded by The Indigo Girls]. On 1200 curfews [CD]. New York, NY: Sony. (1995)

Smalls, B. (1997). Mo money mo problems. On Life after Death [Audio file]. New York, NY: Bad Boy Records.

Citing Online Audio/Visual Materials - APA

Artwork from library databases
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from database homepage URL

Clark, L. (c.a. 1960's). Man with baby [photograph]. George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from

Artwork from the web
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL

Close, C. (2002). Ronald [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from

Film and video - library databases
(Cite as you would film and video, specifying the medium [Video file]). Retrieved from database homepage URL

Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Video file]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from

Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Video file]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from

Film and video - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, s
pecifying the medium [Video file]). Retrieved from URL

Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from

Kaufman, J. C. (Producer), & Lacy, L. (Director). (1979). Mean Joe Greene [Video file]. Retrieved from

Radio and TV episodes/segments from library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segements, specifying the medium [Audio or Video file]). Retrieved from database homepage URL

DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Audio file]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from

Radio and TV episodes/segments from websites
(Cite as you would
broadcast episodes/segements), specifying the medium [Audio or Video file]). Retrieved from URL

Ashbrook, T. (Host and managing editor). (2008, May 14). A family off the grid [Audio file]. In On point [Radio program]. Retrieved from

Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Video file]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retireved from

Lectures and video posts from websites
Lecturer or poster Name. (Copyright or posted date). Title of lecture of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Video file]. Retrieved from

Onie, R.  (2012, April). What if our healthcare system kept us healthy? [Video file]. Retrieved from

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