Library Databases - No DOI
MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.
If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.
Periodical articles - library databases, with DOI
(Cite as you would articles in print). http://dx.doi.org/...
(For more information about DOIs, see left, "Electronic Info - APA")
Hirata, S. (2018). Fake snakes uncover chimpanzees' mind-reading ability. Learning & Behavior, 46(3), 225-226. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-018-0324-3
Martin, J., & Tokada, K. (2007, December). Face recognition in chimpanzees. Behavioral Sciences Journal, 21(4), 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.121.6.1145
Periodical articles - Library Databases, no DOI
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). Retrieved from hompage URL of the periodical - if none exists, Database Name.
Gerdes, V. (1963). Insuring the flood peril. Journal of Insurance, 33(4), 547-553. Retrieved from JSTOR database.
Spending at Humana trims profit. (2012, May 1). The New York Times, p. B2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Periodicals articles from websites
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). https://doi.org/... or Retrieved from periodical hompage URL
Bishop, K. & Kimball, M. A. (2006, Fall). Engaging students in storytelling. Teacher Librarian, 33(4), 28-31. Retrieved from http://www.teacherlibrarian.com
Muller, C. M. P., Brenner, E., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2009). Maybe they are all circles: Clues and cues. Journal of Vision, 9(9), 1-5. https//doi.org/10.1167/9.9.10
Online-only periodical supplements
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers; include descriptions in brackets that help locate materials, e.g., [Supplemental material], [Audio podcast], [Editorial], etc.). https://doi.org/... or Retrieved Access date (only if material is likely to change), from periodical homepage URL
Beconyte, G., Eismontaite, A. & Zemaitiene, J. (2014, January 10). Mythical creatures of Europe [Supplemental material: Main map]. Journal of Maps, 10(1), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2013.867544
eBooks - library databases and websites
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting publisher name and location, and, if not provided, page numbers). https://doi.org/... or Retrieved from Database Name. or URL
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Anxiety disorders. In Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm05
Prairie oyster. (2002). In Rawson's dictionary of euphemisms and other doubletalk. Retrieved from Credo Reference database.
Sartwell, C. (2016). Beauty. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2017 ed.). Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2017/entries/beauty
eBooks - eReaders and downloads
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting publisher name and location, and, if not provided, page numbers) [eReader version or file type]. https://doi.org/... or Retrieved from homepage URL of the site where the book was downloaded
Drum, D., & Zierenberg, T. (2006). The type 2 diabetes sourcebook (3rd ed.) [Adobe Digital Editions version]. https://doi.org/10.1036/0071462317
Undin, J. (2008). Heart times. In M. Meyer (Ed.), Essays on hope (rev. ed., pp. 487-491) [Kindle Fire version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
Author(s). (Date). Title of webpage (italicize stand-alone documents) [format, if relevant]. Retrieved Access Date (only if material is likely to change), from Site Name website: (if not evident from URL, title, or author name) URL.
Bedolla, L. G. (2017). Letter from the director. Retrieved from The Institute of Governmental Studies website: https://igs.berkeley.edu/about/letter-from-the-director
Association of College & Research Libraries. (2011). Standards for libraries in higher education. Retrieved from http://www.ala.org/acrl/sites/ala.org.acrl/files/content/standards/slhe.pdf
Hanson, R. (2018, January 4). Kaczynski's collapse theory [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.overcomingbias.com/2018/01/kaczynskis-collapse-theory.html
House Stark. (2018, September 20). Retrieved September 25, 2018 from http://gameofthrones.wikia.com/wiki/House_Stark
Online government reports
(Cite as you would printed sources, omitting location and publisher). Retrieved from URL, or, if agency is not the author, Retrieved from Agency Name website: URL
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018, August). Highlights of women's earnings in 2017 (Report 1075) Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/womens-earnings/2017
Abma, J. C., & Martinez, G. M. (2017, June 22). Sexual activity and contraceptive use among teenagers in the United States, 2011 - 2015 (National Health Statistics Report No. 104). Retrieved from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics website: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr104.pdf
Author or Group [screen name]. (Date).* Entire Twitter post or truncated version of Facebook update [Form description]. Retrieved from the post's URL
Obama, B. [Barack Obama] (2009, October 9). Humbled. http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/ obamaforamerica/gGM45m [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php? id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775
Artwork - library databases
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from Database Name database
Kahlo, F. (1948). Self-portrait [painting]. University of California, San Diego, CA. Retrieved from ARTstor database.
Artwork - websites
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL
Kantarovsky, S. (2016). Feeder [painting]. The Tate, London, England. Retrieved from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/kantarovsky-feeder-t14830
Streaming films and videos - library databases
(Cite as you would films and videos, specifying the medium [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.
Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from Films on Demand database.
Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Streaming video]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from Academic Video Online database.
Films and videos - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, specifying the medium [Streaming video] or [Video file]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu
Feige, K. (Producer), & Coogler, R. (Director). (2018). Black panther [Streaming video]. Retrieved from https://netflix.com
Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.funnyordie.com/2007/4/12/17665736/the-landlord
Radio/TV episodes/segments - library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments, specifying the medium [Streaming audio] or [Streaming video]). Retrieved from Database Name database.
DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Streaming audio]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from Opposing Viewpoints in Context database.
Radio/TV/Podcast episodes/segments - websites
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segments), specifying the medium [Streaming audio, Audio file, or Audio podcast] or [Streaming video, Video file or Video podcast]). Retrieved from URL or homepage URL of subscription database, like Netflix or Hulu
Folkenflik, D. (Host & Ed.). (2018, August 31). Breaking political norms in the age of Trump [Audio podcast]. In On point [Radio program]. Boston, MA: WBUR. Retrieved from http://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2018/08/31/political-norms-trump-washington
Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Streaming video]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retrieved from http://www.hulu.com
Lectures - websites
Speaker(s) [screen name, if any]. (Date). Lecture or video title [Streaming video] or [Video file]. Retrieved from URL
Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Streaming video]. Retrieved from http://youtube.com/watch?v=Vra84LKESfs
Barry, K. (2004). Brain magic [Streaming video]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/keith_barry_does_brain_magic
Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography