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Citation Guide: Online Resources - APA

A guide to creating citations for bibliographies and works cited pages

Websites for APA Style Citations

Many of these sites offer information about constructing in-text citations, as well as constructing citations for bibliographies and references lists: 

Electronic Info - APA

DOIs

  • When available, use a DOI (digital object identifier); look for a DOI at the beginning or end of an online document. Most will start with http://dx.doi.org/ and will be active links. If the DOI doesn't start with http://dx.doi.org/, put doi: in front of it in the citation.
  • For more information, see the DOI website. To see if an article or book has a DOI assigned to it, use crossref.org.

Library Databases

  • For an article, if no DOI is given, use the periodical's homepage URL. If no DOI is provided for an eBook, use the publisher's homepage URL. Do not use direct links to information about specific periodical articles or books, as these links can change. If no website for the publisher or periodical exits, use the databases's homepage URL.
  • For video, audio, and other multimedia resources, use the database's hompage URL.
  • For more help, visit this DOI and URL Flowchart provided by the APA.

URLs

  • Provide the homepage URL, rather than the full URL, when an item is easily found with a search. 
  • URLs should not be underlined.

Dates

  • If unlikely to change (like articles in library databases, or any works previously or simultaneously published in print), a retrieval date is no longer necessary.
  • Use (n.d.) if no date is given for publication or copyright.

NEW RULES

MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.

If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.

Please Note

Citations should be double-spaced in an actual Bibliography, Works Cited, or References list, and works should be ordered alphabetically by author.

Citing Articles from Library Databases - APA

Periodical articles from library databases - with DOI
 (Cite as you would articles in print). http://dx.doi.org/...

(For more information about DOIs, see left, "Electronic Info - APA")

Martin, J., & Tokada, K. (2007, December). Face recognition in chimpanzees. Behavioral Sciences Journal, 21(4), 39-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.121.6.1145

Periodical articles from Library Databases - no DOI
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). Retrieved from hompage URL of the periodical - if none exists, homepage URL of the database

Gerdes, V. (1963). Insuring the flood peril. Journal of Insurance, 33(4), 547-553.  Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org

Spending at Humana trims profit. (2012, May 1). New York Times, p. B2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Citing Articles from Periodical Websites - APA

Periodicals articles from websites 
(Cite as you would
articles in print, without page numbers if not provided). http://dx.doi.org/... or Retrieved from periodical hompage URL

Bishop, K. & Kimball, M. A. (2006, Fall). Engaging students in storytelling. Teacher Librarian, 33(4), 28-31. Retrieved from http://www.teacherlibrarian.com

Muller, C. M. P., Brenner, E., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2009). Maybe they are all circles: Clues and cues. Journal of Vision, 9(9), 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/9.9.10

Online-only periodical supplements
(Cite as you would
articles in print, without page numbers if not provided, including description in brackets after the supplement title, e.g., [Supplemental material], [Audio podcast], [Map], [Letter to the editor]). http://dx.doi.org/... or Retrieved from peridocial homepage URL

Tatum, D. (2008, April). Depression news [Supplemental material]. Psychiatric Notes, 8(4). Retrieved from http://www.psychiatricnotes.com

Citing eBooks

eBooks from library databases
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers, publisher name, and location). http://dx.doi.org/... or Retrieved from publisher's homepage URL - if none exists, homepage URL of the database

Drum, D., & Zierenberg, T. (2006). The type 2 diabetes sourcebook (3rd ed.). http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071462317

Prairie oysters. (2002). In Rawson's dictionary of euphemisms and otherdoubletalk. Retrieved from http://crownpublishing.com

eBooks from eReaders
(Cite as you would books in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers, publisher name, and location)
[eReader version]. http://dx.doi.org/... or Retrieved from homepage URL of the site where the book was downloaded

Drum, D., & Zierenberg, T. (2006). The type 2 diabetes sourcebook (3rd ed.)[Adobe Digital Editions version].  http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071462317

Paludi, M. A. (2004). Praeger guide to the psychology of gender [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com

Undin, J. (2008). Heart times. In M. Meyer (Ed.), Essays on hope  (rev. ed.) [Kindle Fire version] (pp. 487-491). Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com

Citing Websites - APA

Websites
(Cite as you would
books in print, omitting, when not provided, page numbers, publisher name, and location). http://dx.doi.org/... or Retrieved from homepage URL

Peace, R. (2002, July 20). Fathers and children: Understanding nature. In The novels of Turgenev: Symbols and emblems. Retrieved from http://eis.bris.ac.uk/~rurap/novelsof.htm

Online government publications
(Cite as you would printed sources). Retrieved from URL

U.S. Department of Justice. (2006, September 10). Trends in violent victimization by age, 1973-2005. Retrieved from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/glance/vage.htm

Citing Social Media - APA

Social media
Author name as written (Date)*. Entire Twitter post or truncated version of Facebook update [Form description]. Retrieved from the post's URL

Barack Obama. (2009b, October 9). Humbled. http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/obamaforamerica/gGM45m [Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php? id=6815841748&share_id=154954250775&comments=1#s154954250775

*To differentiate posts from the same person in the same year or same day, use "a" or "b" after the year

Mailing lists (listservs)
Poster's name. (Date). Subject line [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from URL

Stein, C. (2007, May 5). Re: Chessie rescue - Annapolis, MD [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://www.chessie-l.com/920l

Citing Online Audio/Visual Materials - APA

Artwork from library databases
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from database homepage URL

Clark, L. (c.a. 1960's). Man with baby [photograph]. George Eastman House, Rochester, NY. Retrieved from http://www.artstor.org

Artwork from the web
(Cite as you would artwork). Retrieved from URL

Close, C. (2002). Ronald [photograph]. Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY. Retrieved from http://www.moma.org/collection/index

Film and video - library databases
(Cite as you would film and video, specifying the medium [Video file]). Retrieved from database homepage URL

Barry, D. (Producer & Director). (2003). Taste [Video file]. New York, NY: Films Media. Retrieved from http://www.fmgondemand.com

Draper, N. (Producer), & Culpepper, M. (Director). (2007). Bachelor farmer [Video file]. New York, NY: Filmakers Library. Retrieved from http://vasc.alexanderstreet.com

Film and video - websites
(Cite as you would film and video, s
pecifying the medium [Video file]). Retrieved from URL

Ferrell, W. (Producer). (2007). The landlord [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.funnyordie.com

Kaufman, J. C. (Producer), & Lacy, L. (Director). (1979). Mean Joe Greene [Video file]. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/mbrs/ccmp/meanjoe_01g.ram

Radio and TV episodes/segments from library databases
(Cite as you would broadcast episodes/segements, specifying the medium [Audio or Video file]). Retrieved from database homepage URL

DeFord, F. (Writer). (2007, August 8). Beyond Vick: Animal cruelty for sport [Audio file]. In E. McDonnell (Producer), Morning Edition [Radio program]. Retrieved from http://www.gale.cengage.com/AcademicOneFile

Radio and TV episodes/segments from websites
(Cite as you would
broadcast episodes/segements), specifying the medium [Audio or Video file]). Retrieved from URL

Ashbrook, T. (Host and managing editor). (2008, May 14). A family off the grid [Audio file]. In On point [Radio program]. Retrieved from http://onpoint.wbur.org

Espenson, J. (Writer), & Little, D. (Director). (2009, May 1). Briar rose [Video file]. In J. Whedon (Producer), Dollhouse [Television program]. Retireved from http://www.hulu.com

Lectures and video posts from websites
Lecturer or poster Name. (Copyright or posted date). Title of lecture of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Day, J. (2009, August 1). Tips and tricks for the special education classroom [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube.com/watch?v=Vra84LKESfs

Onie, R.  (2012, April). What if our healthcare system kept us healthy? [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com

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