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Citation Guide: Articles - APA

A guide to creating citations for bibliographies and works cited pages

Websites for APA Style Citations

Many of these sites offer information about constructing in-text citations, as well as constructing citations for bibliographies and references lists: 

Periodical Info - APA

Names

  • If the first element of a citation, display an author's last name first, followed by first and middle initials
  • Separate names with a comma; use an ampersand (&) before the last author (if there are more than seven authors, use an ellipses after the sixth author's name, then include final author)
  • If no author is given, article title appears first, then date

Dates

  • Do not abbreviate month names
  • Daily periodicals: (year, month day)
  • Monthly or quarterly periodicals: (year, month or season)
  • Use (n.d.) if no date is provided

Titles

  • Article titles and subtitles: capitalize the first word and proper nouns
  • Periodical titles: italicize, and capitalize all words except articles and prepositions

Issue Numbers 

  • Include issue number, especially if paginated by issue

Page numbers

  • Newspapers: use p. for one page, pp. for two or more pages
  • Magazines and journals: do not use p. or pp.

DOI's

  • When available, include a DOI (digital object identifier); look for a DOI at the beginning or end of an article
  • Many DOIs will start with http://dx.doi.org or https://doi.org
  • Using https://doi.org is now preferred by APA
  • For more information, see www.doi.org; to see if an article has a DOI assigned to it, use www.crossref.org/guestquery

Electronic Info - APA

DOIs

  • When available, include a DOI (digital object identifier); look for a DOI at the beginning or end of an article
  • Many DOIs will start with http://dx.doi.org or https://doi.org
  • Using https://doi.org is now preferred by APA
  • For more information, see www.doi.org; to see if an article has a DOI assigned to it, use www.crossref.org/guestquery
  • For more information, see the DOI website. To see if an article or book has a DOI assigned to it, use crossref.org.

Library Databases - No DOI

  • For an article, use the periodical's homepage URL instead; if none exists, use the Database Name instead
  • For eBooks, we well as video, audio, and other multimedia resources, use the Database name instead

URLs

  • web address usually starts with http:// or https://
  • Provide the homepage URL, rather than a very long direct URL, when an item is easily found with a search

Dates

  • If unlikely to change (like articles in library databases, or any works also published in print), a retrieval date is not needed
  • Use (n.d.) if no date is given for publication or copyright

NEW RULES

MLA-style and APA-style guidelines change over time, especially for citing sources accessed electronically. This guide incorporates the most up-to-date information about how to cite sources correctly.

If you use a citation generator from a database or website, doublecheck, using this guide, to be sure the generator has used the current rules.

Please Note

Citations should be double-spaced in an actual Bibliography, Works Cited, or References list, and works should be ordered alphabetically by author.

Citing Articles from Print Journals, Magazines, Newspapers - APA

Articles in journals and magazines
Author(s). (Date). Title of article. Journal or Magazine Title, volume number(issue number, if any), page(s).
https://doi.org/... (if given)

Gerry, R. (1997, April-June). Tempo training for freestyle. Swimming Technique, 34(1), 40-42.

Rehder, B. (2007, September 17). Pure muscle and all heart: Ezzy, a doting Pit bull. Newsweek, 150(2), 19.

Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature171, 737-738.

Articles in daily newspapers
Author(s). (Year, Month day). Title of article. Newspaper Title, p. or pp. page(s). https://doi.org/... (if given)

Munsey, C., & Shuey, P. J. (1997, May 8). Bomb threats to become felony. The Capital, pp. A1, A6.

Book and film reviews
Reviewer Name(s), if given. (Date). Title of review (if any) [Review of the book/film Title, by Author(s), Editor(s), or Producer(s), Director, etc., year of release (if a film, DVD, video game, etc.)]. Periodical Title, volume(issue), pages(s).
https://doi.org/... (if given)

Carothers, T. (2018, September 16). A relentlessly dark indictment of global capitalism, with a Trumpian twist [Review of the book American: The farewell tour, by C. Hedges]. The Washington Post, p. B6.

Maslin, J. (1998, December 11). The causes [Review of the DVD Gang Context, produced by Police Now, 1998]. Reels, 8(4), 45.

Unsigned articles in newspapers
Title of article. (Year, month day). Newspaper Title, p. or pp. page(s). https://doi.org/... (if given)

Haley charged. (2009, June 1). Springfield Post, p. A1, A10.

Editorials and letters to Editors of newspapers
Author. (Date). Title, if any [Editorial or Letter to the Editor]. Newspaper Title
, p. or pp. page(s). https:doi.org/... (if given)

Beckmann, A. (2018, January 15). State songbirds matter [Letter to the Editor]. The Baltimore Sun, p. D10.

Citing Articles from Library Databases - APA

Periodical articles - library databases, with DOI
 (Cite as you would articles in print). http://dx.doi.org/...

(For more information about DOIs, see left, "Electronic Info - APA")

Hirata, S. (2018). Fake snakes uncover chimpanzees' mind-reading ability. Learning & Behavior, 46(3), 225-226. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13420-018-0324-3

Martin, J., & Tokada, K. (2007, December). Face recognition in chimpanzees. Behavioral Sciences Journal, 21(4), 39-57. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.121.6.1145

Periodical articles - Library Databases, no DOI
(Cite as you would articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). Retrieved from hompage URL of the periodical - if none exists, Database Name.

Gerdes, V. (1963). Insuring the flood peril. Journal of Insurance, 33(4), 547-553.  Retrieved from JSTOR database. 

Spending at Humana trims profit. (2012, May 1). The New York Times, p. B2. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

Citing Articles from Periodical Websites - APA

Periodicals articles from websites 
(Cite as you would
articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers). https://doi.org/... or Retrieved from periodical hompage URL

Bishop, K. & Kimball, M. A. (2006, Fall). Engaging students in storytelling. Teacher Librarian, 33(4), 28-31. Retrieved from http://www.teacherlibrarian.com

Muller, C. M. P., Brenner, E., & Smeets, J. B. J. (2009). Maybe they are all circles: Clues and cues. Journal of Vision, 9(9), 1-5. https//doi.org/10.1167/9.9.10

Online-only periodical supplements
(Cite as you would
articles in print, omitting, if not provided, page numbers; include descriptions in brackets that help locate materials, e.g., [Supplemental material], [Audio podcast], [Editorial], etc.). https://doi.org/... or Retrieved Access date (only if material is likely to change), from periodical homepage URL

Beconyte, G., Eismontaite, A. & Zemaitiene, J. (2014, January 10). Mythical creatures of Europe [Supplemental material: Main map]. Journal of Maps, 10(1), 53-60. https://doi.org/10.1080/17445647.2013.867544

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