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PHS 109 (General Oceanography)

Evaluating Sources with the CRAAP Test

Use the CRAAP Test to help you evaluate the information you find!

  • C: Currency-the timeliness of the information
  • R: Relevancy-the importance of the information to your need
  • A: Authority-the source of the information
  • A: Accuracy-the reliability or truthfulness of the information
  • P: Purpose-the reason the information exists

Google Search Tips

Use Google Advanced Search to search more effectively with your keywords! Google Advanced Search allows you to combine multiple search terms. You may also limit your search results in special ways, including by domain name (to receive only .gov or .edu websites) or by the last time a website was updated (to eliminate information that is not current).

See the screenshots and directions below:

Enter your search terms in the Advanced Search Boxes:

Google Advanced Search screenshot

Narrow your search results:

Helpful limiters:

1.) Site or domain: You can search for only .gov or .edu websites.

2.) Last update: Find only information that has been updated within the past year.

Google Advanced Search screenshot

Library photo courtesy of Barry Halkin Photography